Khory Hancock

Environmental Science in Action: Inspiring Solutions for a Changing Planet

Published On: 06/05/2023

Environmental science is a dynamic field that seeks to understand the complex interplay between humans and the environment. As we face unprecedented environmental challenges, environmental scientists are at the forefront, developing innovative solutions to promote sustainability and protect our planet. This article showcases compelling examples of environmental science in action, highlighting inspiring initiatives that address climate change, conservation, sustainable technologies, and community engagement.

Climate Resilience Strategies:

Environmental scientists are actively involved in developing climate resilience strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change. They research adaptation measures, such as creating resilient infrastructure, implementing nature-based solutions, and designing climate-resilient urban planning. These strategies aim to minimize the vulnerability of communities to extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and other climate-related hazards, ensuring a sustainable and resilient future.

Restoration Ecology:

Restoration ecology focuses on rehabilitating degraded ecosystems and restoring their functionality. Environmental scientists collaborate with local communities and stakeholders to identify areas for restoration and implement targeted interventions. Examples include reforestation projects, wetland restoration, and rehabilitation of damaged coral reefs. Restoration ecology promotes biodiversity conservation and enhances ecosystem services critical for human well-being.

Sustainable Transportation Initiatives:

Environmental science plays a vital role in the development of sustainable transportation systems. Scientists work on alternative fuels, electric vehicles, and efficient public transportation networks. By promoting sustainable mobility solutions, such as bike-sharing programs, pedestrian-friendly infrastructure, and intelligent transportation systems, environmental science contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in urban areas.

Citizen Science:

Citizen science engages the public in scientific research and data collection. Environmental scientists leverage citizen science initiatives to gather vast amounts of data on environmental issues, such as air and water quality monitoring, wildlife observations, and climate observations. Environmental science fosters public awareness, education, and collective action toward ecological conservation and sustainability by involving the community.

Sustainable Waste Management:

Environmental scientists are developing innovative solutions for sustainable waste management. They explore technologies for waste-to-energy conversion, recycling innovations, and organic waste composting. These initiatives reduce the strain on landfills, minimize pollution, and promote the efficient use of resources. Sustainable waste management practices are crucial for achieving a circular economy and reducing the environmental impact of waste disposal.

Green Infrastructure:

Green infrastructure refers to the integration of natural elements into urban design. Environmental scientists work with urban planners and architects to incorporate green roofs, vertical gardens, and urban forests into city landscapes. These features provide numerous benefits, including reducing the urban heat island effect, improving air quality, and enhancing biodiversity. Green infrastructure creates sustainable and livable urban environments.

Environmental Education and Community Engagement:

Environmental science emphasizes the importance of education and community engagement to foster ecological awareness and stewardship. Scientists develop educational programs, workshops, and community-based projects to empower individuals and communities to take action. By promoting environmental literacy and encouraging sustainable practices, ecological science inspires a sense of responsibility and collective effort to protect our environment.


Environmental science is a dynamic and evolving field that addresses our complex challenges in the 21st century. Environmental scientists are making a tangible impact through initiatives focused on climate resilience, restoration ecology, sustainable transportation, citizen science, waste management, green infrastructure, and community engagement. These examples demonstrate the power of environmental science to inspire innovative solutions, shape policies, and foster sustainable practices. By continuing to prioritize research, collaboration, and public involvement, ecological science will play a crucial role in creating a more sustainable and resilient future for our planet and future generations.

Revolutionary Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage: Unveiling 7 Cutting-Edge Technologies

Published Date: 05-12-2023

As the urgency to address climate change grows, scientists and engineers continue to push the boundaries of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. These cutting-edge innovations offer promising solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In this article, we will explore seven revolutionary advances in carbon capture and storage, highlighting their potential to reshape our approach to climate change mitigation.

Solid Sorbent Technologies

Solid sorbent technologies focus on developing highly efficient materials capable of capturing carbon dioxide from flue gas emissions. These materials, such as metal-organic frameworks and porous polymers, have a large surface area and can chemically adsorb CO2 molecules. Solid sorbent technologies offer the advantage of easy regeneration and can be utilized in a range of applications, including power plants and industrial facilities.

Cryogenic Carbon Capture

Cryogenic carbon capture involves cooling flue gas to extremely low temperatures, causing the carbon dioxide to condense into a solid or liquid phase. This method reduces the volume of gas that needs to be processed, facilitating easier separation and storage of carbon dioxide. Cryogenic carbon capture shows promise for large-scale applications, particularly in industries with high carbon emissions.

Membrane-Based Carbon Capture

Membrane-based carbon capture utilizes specialized membranes to selectively separate carbon dioxide from flue gas. These membranes allow the passage of CO2 molecules while blocking other gases. Membrane-based systems offer advantages such as low energy requirements, compact size, and scalability. Ongoing research aims to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of these membranes to enable widespread deployment.

Carbon Capture via Mineralization

Carbon capture via mineralization involves reacting carbon dioxide with certain minerals, such as serpentine or basalt, to form stable carbonate minerals. This process permanently converts carbon dioxide into a solid form, reducing the risk of its release back into the atmosphere. Carbon capture via mineralization has the potential to provide long-term carbon storage solutions, particularly when coupled with enhanced weathering techniques.

Direct Electrochemical Carbon Capture

Direct electrochemical carbon capture employs specialized electrodes to chemically capture carbon dioxide from air or flue gas. This method utilizes an electrochemical cell to convert CO2 into a solid carbonate product that can be stored or utilized. Direct electrochemical carbon capture holds promise for decentralized applications and can potentially operate using renewable energy sources.

Bio-inspired Carbon Capture

Bio-inspired carbon capture draws inspiration from natural processes, such as photosynthesis, to develop innovative carbon capture technologies. This approach involves developing artificial systems that mimic the ability of plants and other organisms to capture and store carbon dioxide. Bio-inspired approaches aim to achieve efficient and sustainable carbon capture solutions by replicating nature's carbon capture mechanisms.

Underground Carbon Mineral Storage

Underground carbon mineral storage explores the potential of injecting carbon dioxide into geological formations where it can react with existing minerals, forming stable carbonates. This method provides a permanent and secure storage solution for carbon dioxide. Research and pilot projects are underway to assess underground carbon mineral storage's feasibility and long-term viability.


Revolutionary advances in carbon capture and storage technologies are transforming our ability to address climate change effectively. Solid sorbent technologies, cryogenic carbon capture, membrane-based carbon capture, carbon capture via mineralization, direct electrochemical carbon capture, bio-inspired carbon capture, and underground carbon mineral storage offer diverse approaches to capture and storing carbon dioxide.

These innovative technologies hold tremendous potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, enhance carbon sequestration, and pave the way for a more sustainable future. Continued research, development, and investment in these cutting-edge approaches are essential to unlock their full potential and accelerate their deployment.

By combining these advanced carbon capture and storage methods with renewable energy generation, energy efficiency measures, and sustainable practices, we can make significant strides toward achieving carbon neutrality and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

Collaboration between governments, industries, and research institutions is crucial to driving the development and deployment of these revolutionary carbon capture and storage technologies. Financial support, policy incentives, and regulatory frameworks are needed to facilitate their adoption on a larger scale. Furthermore, knowledge sharing and international cooperation can accelerate progress and foster innovation in this critical field.

While these cutting-edge technologies show great promise, it is essential to consider their environmental impact and ensure their deployment aligns with sustainability principles. Life cycle assessments and continuous monitoring of these systems are necessary to minimize potential adverse effects and ensure their overall environmental benefits.

As we strive for a sustainable future, the revolutionary advances in carbon capture and storage technologies provide a ray of hope. Solid sorbent technologies, cryogenic carbon capture, membrane-based carbon capture, carbon capture via mineralization, direct electrochemical carbon capture, bio-inspired carbon capture, and underground carbon mineral storage offer diverse solutions to address the global challenge of climate change.

Through their implementation and integration into comprehensive climate mitigation strategies, we can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and pave the way for a cleaner and more sustainable planet.

Investing in research and development, fostering innovation, and creating an enabling environment for deploying these technologies are critical steps toward achieving our climate goals. By harnessing the power of these revolutionary carbon capture and carbon storage methods, we can pave the way for a greener future and ensure a more sustainable and resilient planet for future generations.

Which country has no CO2?

Published On: 04/12/2023

As the problem of global warming gets worse, many countries are taking steps to lower their carbon impacts. In particular, some are getting rid of their carbon emissions.

This map shows how much carbon dioxide each country in the world puts into the air in thousands of tonnes per year. It also discusses how cities, roads, and shipping lanes cause these emissions.

Norway, a small country in the Nordic region with about 5 million people, has been seen as a leader in climate change for a long time. It wants to be carbon-neutral by 2030 and spends billions of dollars on projects overseas to protect rainforests and other trees that take carbon dioxide out of the air and keep heat in.

It is also one of the biggest donors to international attempts to stop the loss of forests. It has already spent $1 billion to save trees in Brazil and plans to spend up to $350 million a year to protect forests in other countries.

But Norway's fossil fuel business is significant to its economy. It accounts for over 12% of its GDP and 35% of its exports. And even if Norway meets the goals it set in the Paris Agreement and stops growing its oil fields, the emissions from burning its fossil fuels could still be bad for the climate.

Denmark is a small Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It is close to Greenland and the Faroe Islands. It is southwest of Sweden and south of Norway. It shares a border with Germany to the south.

More than six million people live there, most in the central city, Copenhagen, and on the peninsula of Jutland. The country has a temperate climate and is known for its large welfare state, which gives free health care and schooling.

Denmark has a very high standard of living and a strong economy. It is considered one of the countries with the most advanced economies in the world. It also does well in many foreign measures of performance.

Germany is the most economically solid and industrialized country in the European Union. It has the fourth most people in the world. It has an extensive social protection system, health care for everyone, and a free college education.

It is a democratic, parliamentary, federal republic comprising several independent states, each with its past, German tribe dialect, culture, and religious beliefs. During the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, it became a single country.

Germans come from a lot of different ethnic groups, including Germans (91%), Turks (2.4%), other nationalities (6.1%), and four significant "national minorities": Danes in Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost state, Frisians in the western coast of that state, Roma and Sinti all over the federal territory, and Sorbs, a Slavic group who live in Lusatia, Saxony, and Brandenburg.

New Zealand has some of the most beautiful scenery in the world, making it the best place for eco-tourism. The best things about this country are the white sand beaches, the mysterious fern woods, and the snow-capped mountain peaks.

But the country's climate policy and actions still need much work to be as effective as possible. For example, the Government still needs to back up its Zero Carbon Act with plans to cut pollution.

Also, New Zealand has been criticized for using a controversial accounting method for planted forests that hides the fact that the sector's emissions are increasing. This way of doing things also puts New Zealand at risk of fires and diseases and could become a problem.

Japan is an island country in East Asia. It is often called the Land of the Rising Sun. It is home to 127,253,075 people, and many essential towns are there.

People know it for its past, culture, and the technology it has made. This is because every day, a lot of hard work goes into it.

Japan has become a very famous country because of its technology, which is known worldwide. They also live in a country with an excellent economy growing daily.

They have one of the most advanced technologies in the world, and some of the best ideas ever come from them. This is because the people of Japan worked hard on their country's business and technology.

Which plants are the best at taking in carbon?

Published on : 04-04-2023

Carbon capture is taking carbon dioxide from the air and putting it elsewhere. It has become an important part of attempts to stop climate change.

There are a lot of different ways to collect carbon. Direct air and biofuel carbon capture and storage are the two most common ways to do this. (BECCS).

The Red Mulberry Tree, or Morus rubra, is a local tree that loses its leaves in the fall. Its wide leaves protect other trees and plants. It also protects wild animals from predators and gives cattle something to eat.

Many animals and birds eat the sweet, bumpy fruit that these trees make. They also give birds like catbirds, cardinals, and purple grackles important places to live.

Mulberry trees can be either monoecious or dioecious, which means that male and female flowers can grow on the same tree or different plants. They make berries that are ready to eat in the spring and summer.

The London plane tree (Platanus xacerifolia) is one of the best trees for capturing and storing carbon. It takes in a lot of carbon dioxide every year and can fight off different diseases.

The London plane is a very adaptable tree that does well in cities. It is a cross between an American sycamore and an Oriental plane tree. It has a unique bark that comes off in big flakes. This helps it get rid of pollution.

This tree grows quickly and can be more than 30 feet tall and 20 feet wide, making it a good choice for cities. It is also immune to many diseases and pests, which makes it a top choice for gardeners.

The Liquidambar styraciflua, or American Sweetgum Tree, is one of the best trees at taking in carbon. It lives for a long time and can take in a lot of CO2 over time, which makes it a great choice for planting in cities.

It also has some cultural traits that are interesting and unique to this species. For example, the tree makes a smelly oil from cuts in its bark.

The tree is also known for its gumball-like fruits with sharp points. This can be a problem for some homes, but birds and other animals love the fruit.

One of the best trees for taking in carbon is the Dogwood tree (Cornus florida). It's a good choice for homes and city planners because it's hardy and good for wildlife.

It looks great in any yard or landscape, too. It doesn't need much care and will grow well if it gets enough sunlight, especially through taller trees, and grows in good soil.

It also needs water at least twice a week to keep its roots healthy, and an organic mulch beneath its cover can help it grow. It is especially sensitive to drought, which makes insects more likely to attack.

The Blue Spruce Tree is one of the best trees for storing carbon. During photosynthesis, it takes in a lot of carbon dioxide and stores that carbon in its base, branches, and roots.

Its long life can also help it store carbon over the long run. Also, plants that have been there for a long time grow more slowly than young trees but store more carbon.

Luckily, there are several things that landowners can do to make a current forest better at capturing carbon. For example, you can speed up carbon capture by putting slash on skid trails, not gathering when it's raining, or using forwarders instead of skidding whole trees.

The Iroko Tree, or Milicia excelsa, is a big tree that grows in West Africa. This species is very popular because its hard, thick, and strong hardwood is sometimes called "Nigerian Teak."

But this tree is also in danger in many parts of Africa and is listed as "vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. A new study shows that this tree may be able to store mineral carbon in the soil around it, which would help capture carbon dioxide.

Even though this is a great find, it doesn't solve all our questions. But it's good to know that this tree can help fight climate change by storing carbon in the soil.

Ivy comes from the genus Hedera and is a woody, evergreen climbing plant. It is a famous plant in gardens and woods. Its leaves and flowers give birds and bees a place to stay warm in the winter, and it is also an important food source for many species.

It does well in full sun and shade, making it a good choice for putting under trees. It can also withstand frost and handle air pollution and city smoke.

A recent study found that ivy grows in places where the weather is getting warmer. This study was done by Ghent University, which looked at almost 2,000 plots in temperate forests in 40 areas of Europe.

5 Principles of Regenerative Agriculture

Published on : 03-21-2023

Regenerative agriculture, or conservation agriculture, improves soil health and makes farms more resilient to climate change. It also reduces water pollution by reducing the amount of herbicides and pesticides that are used on farms. Regenerative farmers maintain biodiversity on their land by diversifying their crops and planting cover crops. They can also rely on grazing for nutrient recycling through animal manure. 

Soil health is a holistic concept that describes the sustained ability of soils to deliver key functions that support sustainability and productivity. It is an important focus for many agricultural groups including farmers, ranchers, scientists, and Extension specialists.

Soils are living ecosystems that are teeming with bacteria, fungi, and algae in addition to plant roots, dead organic matter, and other soil organisms. These microorganisms drive soil food web activity, transforming nutrients from one form to another.

Soil health can be improved by implementing management practices that maintain or enhance the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of soils. These aspects operate in synergy to provide a range of services, such as nutrient availability, water infiltration, erosion control, and habitat for diverse organisms.

One of the most important principles of regenerative agriculture is water conservation. This includes all policies, strategies and activities that sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, protect the hydrosphere, meet current human demand and prepare for future needs.

Water is a scarce resource and is being depleted. It is essential for food, ecosystems and life as we know it. It is used to irrigate plants, recycle nutrients and clean the environment. Regenerative farming techniques promote better soil health and sequester more carbon in the soil.

Research shows that diversified agricultural systems lead to ecosystem improvements while maintaining or even improving crop yields. The new study, which examined data from over 5,188 studies published in various scientific journals, found that diversified farming practices lead to a range of benefits across different regions and climates, including enhanced water retention and nutrient cycling.

Local food systems (LFS) are food networks where foods from farmers in a specific area are produced, marketed and consumed locally. These food networks are a growing sector of the global economy. Consumers are motivated to eat local foods for many reasons, including health benefits, economic or community benefits and environmental benefits. Moreover, consuming local foods can also reduce the need for transportation to get food from farm to table.

Governments and civil society organisations have promoted local food systems as a lever for change towards more inclusive, resilient and sustainable food systems. However, these claims have been questioned by multi-disciplinary scientific evidence.

In regenerative agriculture, farmers limit mechanical soil disturbance (tilling) to build organic matter in the soil. This helps to improve water retention and reduce soil erosion. The specific techniques for caring for the soil depend on local conditions. For example, a regenerative farm may vary crop rotations and plant high diversity cover crops.

Resilience to climate change is an important principle of regenerative agriculture because it addresses the broader issue of how communities can adapt to the impacts of climate change. This includes reducing flood risk, preparing agricultural markets for droughts, and improving public housing for vulnerable residents who are often not well-protected from the effects of climate change.

Resilience can be defined as an “ability or capacity to withstand, absorb and recover from climate changes.” This is important because it underscores that climate change impacts are unique to each community.

Who in the world has the cleanest air?

Published on: 01-11-2023

The air is immaculate in the US Virgin Islands, Iceland, Puerto Rico, and Canada. People say they are some of the most beautiful places on Earth, and it's easy to see why. These islands are great options whether you want to get away with your significant other or get some fresh air.

Finland is one of the cleanest places in the world. Older people with lung problems can benefit from the clean air in Finland. According to the World Health Organization, Finland has the cleanest air in the world.

Several things make the air quality in Finland so good. Some of these are the weather and new technologies that reduce pollution.

Finland has a small population and is far away from polluting industries, which are also factors. Because of this, the air quality is better than the average in most other big cities.

With an average of six micrograms per cubic meter, Finland has the fewest fine particles of any country on Earth. This number is much less than the ten ug/m3 that the World Health Organization says is safe.

People say that the US Virgin Islands have the cleanest air worldwide. A study by IQ Air found that the average air quality in the Virgin Islands meets the annual standard set by the World Health Organization (WHO).

This survey looked at the amount of PM2.5, tiny particles that are easy to breathe. It also measured fine particles, which are those with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less. The information for this study came from 6,475 cities all over the world. Only 3% of towns met the WHO's rules for good air quality.

The World Health Organization says that each country can only have a certain amount of PM2.5. These rules are meant to protect the health of the public. The study says the Virgin Islands met the goal with a PM2.5 reading of 3.53 ug/m3. With a reading of 1.650 ppm, New Caledonia also met the goal.

Puerto Rico has the best air in the world. It is between the United States and South America in the Caribbean. In the past, sulfur dioxide pollution has been a problem on the island. Even so, Puerto Rico still meets the PM2.5 standards set by the World Health Organization.

Polluted air is a significant health risk. Poor air quality kills more than seven million people annually by making them sick. Most of the nitrogen dioxide in cities comes from the exhaust of cars and trucks. Heart attacks and other breathing problems have been linked to sulfur dioxide.

The Eastern Caribbean is less polluted than the rest because it is far from the mainland. Also, trade winds blow most of the time in the eastern part of the Caribbean. The sea breeze in the afternoon picks up and holds onto emissions.

On the other hand, the east-northeast trade winds go around the North Atlantic High. During the summer, the trade winds are mixed with cyclones and troughs that move through.

Iceland has been named the world's cleanest country. Tourists and people who like nature have always enjoyed going there. There are also several volcanoes and glaciers in the country. Iceland's capital city, Reykjavik, has the cleanest air. But South Iceland, which has a lot of wind, can have a lot of particulate pollution.

Iceland has consistently been ranked as one of the cleanest countries in the world regarding air quality. The country's location is one of the main things that affects how clean its air is. Iceland is in the middle of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Scandinavian Plate, two tectonic plates. Because of this, the weather is mild, making it an excellent place for people who love nature and being outside.

The small number of people in Iceland is another thing that helps clean the air. This makes the forest cover thicker and lessens the number of people who breathe in polluted air.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has just released its first air quality database. According to this database, Canada is one of the cleanest countries in the world. Information from almost 1,100 cities in 91 countries was gathered for this ranking.

Air pollution is one of the most dangerous things to people's health in the environment. It can be a significant cause of heart disease, asthma, and death before its time. PM10 particles, a type of fine particulate matter, average 13 micrograms per cubic meter per year in Canada.

These pieces are 50 to 100 times thinner than a single hair. They can also get deep into the lungs and are thought to be the leading cause of heart disease and strokes. Even though the air quality across the country is still above average, there are still places where the air quality could be better. Several things have led to this.

What Drawbacks Exist for Carbon Farming?

Published On: 12-20-2022

You should know a few things about carbon farming before deciding whether it's suitable for your farm. The cost of carbon farming is one of its most significant drawbacks. You will have to fork over almost $40 per ton of carbon to offset your greenhouse gas emissions.

"Carbon farming" is a concept that has been around for a while. Groups like the Environmental Defense Fund, the Food and Agriculture Climate Alliance, and the National Farmers Union promote a low-tech approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The idea is that by employing techniques like cover crop use, cover crop planting, and soil carbon building, farmers can reduce their carbon emissions. For instance, a farmer in the Midwest can use conservation tillage, a cover crop, and a few other methods to sequester half a ton of carbon per acre.

In the wake of the COP21 conferences in Paris, the idea of "carbon farming" gained popularity. However, detractors contend that the concept won't benefit the environment. They specifically question the significance of greenhouse gas reduction.

Numerous substances in the soil contribute significantly to the ecology and function of the ground. One of the more intriguing components is organic carbon, which could make up as much as 5% of the soil's total mass. It contributes to the degradation of pollutants, moisture availability, and nutrient retention. Humus and non-humus are the two main categories of earth. The latter make up the majority of the volume above in most soils.

Measuring the pH, moisture content, and other physical characteristics of your soil is the best way to determine the amount of carbon present. You will require an exact measuring stick in order to assess those above. To measure pH, a combination electrode should be submerged in water. An elemental analyzer is more practical for the remaining data.

Farmers may be able to increase their income through carbon farming. Enhancing their soil utilization, aids them in minimizing their environmental impact. It can also assist them in managing pasture lands.

Farmers can get assistance from the Agoro Carbon Alliance in implementing sustainable practices. They receive carbon credits in exchange. These credits can then be exchanged for money with other businesses.

Investor interest is growing in the market for soil carbon credits. In 2022, the market is anticipated to grow to $1 billion. Agricultural activities cause one-third of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. Payments are available from agribusinesses for using climate-smart farming practices.

The farmer must gather and keep accurate farm records in order to create a revenue stream. They must also be independently verified.

It is obvious how important it is to manage crop residue properly. It can hold nutrients in bound form, protecting a crop from the impact of raindrops while also releasing them for use by subsequent crops.

An adequately managed crop residue can improve the soil's structure and be a great source of nutrients. The outcome is a more well-behaved agroecosystem that generates a healthier crop and a higher yield. In particular, enhancing the soil's microbiology will improve its capacity to hold onto water and resist erosion. Additionally, improved soil structure will decrease the likelihood of crusting over while enabling it to absorb more nutrients and water.

Although the PhycoTerra(r) name and purpose may be a mouthful, the PhycoTerra(r) is a complexly balanced formula created to stimulate active and dormant soil microbes, which leads to a more efficient nutrient release and mineralization. The outcome is a more vital crop residue that can withstand the difficulties of decomposition during harvest.

Carbon must be priced if we are to combat climate change effectively. This will motivate emitters to change their practices and create an economic environment for environmentally friendly development. Additionally, a carbon price would aid internalizing the external costs of greenhouse gas emissions. This may encourage financial investments and innovation, which will support the growth of new low-carbon economic drivers.

The social cost of carbon serves as the foundation for many nations' climate policies. Four values in the US define the SCC. Discount rates are used in the calculation. For instance, the typical discount rate in the US is 5%. The SCC increased by 26% in 2012, 3% in 2013, and 32% in 2014 using this discount rate. The outputs from each model are combined for a specific discount rate to determine the social cost of carbon.